Those biological processes that are involved in the transmission of hereditary traits from one organism to another.
GEN only; avoid: prefer specifics
Genetic Processes Categories.
DNA Methylation - Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
DNA Repair - The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Gene Expression - The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Gene Expression Regulation - Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action at the level of transcription or translation. These processes include gene activation and genetic induction.
Gene Rearrangement - The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Heredity - The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
Mutagenesis - Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Recombination, Genetic - Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER, GENE CONVERSION, GENETIC TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC CONJUGATION, GENETIC TRANSDUCTION, or mixed infection of viruses.
Selection (Genetics) - Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Sex Determination (Genetics) - The mechanism in a given species, by which the SEX of an individual is fixed. In many species, sex is established at FERTILIZATION by the SPERM that fertilizes the EGG. In human, the Y CHROMOSOME bearing sperm determine production of the male ZYGOTE.
Genetic Processes Medical Definitions and Terms
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