Canadian Medical Guide > Biological Sciences > Genetic Processes Terms and Definitions

Genetic Processes

Medical Definition: Those biological processes that are involved in the transmission of hereditary traits from one organism to another.
Guide Notes: GEN only; avoid: prefer specifics
Genetic Processes Categories.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition DNA Methylation - Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition DNA Repair - The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition DNA Replication - The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition Gene Expression - The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition Gene Expression Regulation - Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action at the level of transcription or translation. These processes include gene activation and genetic induction.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition Gene Rearrangement - The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition Heredity - The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition Mutagenesis - Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition Recombination, Genetic - Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER, GENE CONVERSION, GENETIC TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC CONJUGATION, GENETIC TRANSDUCTION, or mixed infection of viruses.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition Selection (Genetics) - Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Canadian Medical Guide Definition Sex Determination (Genetics) - The mechanism in a given species, by which the SEX of an individual is fixed. In many species, sex is established at FERTILIZATION by the SPERM that fertilizes the EGG. In human, the Y CHROMOSOME bearing sperm determine production of the male ZYGOTE.

Genetic Processes Medical Definitions and Terms


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